- 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1. Dashboard
1.2. Car opening
1.3. Rear-view mirrors
1.4. Ignition / starter switch
1.5. Manual transmission
1.6. Automatic transmission
1.7. Engine start
1.8. Release of the hand brake
1.9. Car parking
1.10. Multipurpose display
1.11. Electronic central air of air
1.12. Safety locks
1.14. Lubricants and liquids
1.15. Impellent compartment
- 1.16. Good advice
+ 1.16.1. Car purchase
1.16.2. Preparation of the car for winter
+ 1.16.3. Councils for owners of the diesel car
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Repair of engines
+ 4. Heating system and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel, exhaust systems
+ 6. System of start of the engine
+ 7. Ignition system
+ 8. Coupling
+ 9. Transmissions
+ 10. Main transfer, semi-axes
+ 11. Brake system
+ 12. Suspension bracket and steering
+ 13. Body
+ 14. Body electric equipment
консультация бухгалтера спб
If you yet did not prepare for it the car – hurry. We do not insist on that you carried out all our councils and recommendations independently. If there is no desire to potter – exist service stations and the professional master. But you should represent, what exactly is necessary for making with the car, accurately to explain it to the master, and sometimes and to track that everything was made as it is necessary.
On snow and ice in sandals do not go – the car for the winter too should be changed. About winter rubber we wrote repeatedly therefore we will shortly remind only main issues.
For winter tires with M+S markings (are intended to Mud+Snow – "Gryaz+sneg"), Winter ("Winter") or W. These inscriptions are sometimes accompanied by pictograms in the form of a snowflake or a tuchka.
It is better to choose tires поуже, than by what you go in the summer – naturally, within admissible for your car of a dimensional range. The protector should press through snow and mud porridge to a firm covering, and narrow tires cope with it better.
It is undesirable to go in the winter by all-weather tires – that are marked by AS indexes (All Seasons – "All seasons") or AW (Any Weather – "Any weather").
"Winter" possibilities at them weak; all-weather in the true sense of the word it is possible to consider them only if it is a question of low-snow Europe, instead of about Russia. Told to a lesser extent concerns some rubber for SUVs. It in all-weather execution essentially "more winter", than automobile. If you have a SUV, tires AS and AW in the winter is is acceptable. But, of course, worse, than M+S or Winter.
Tires on ice and on snow hold Shipovannye better, than neshipovanny. But on pure asphalt when braking on thorns the probability of blocking of wheels, drift and a brake way increase: steel thorns not bad slide on asphalt. Danger consists also that drivers blindly trust in thorns and, braking on asphalt, expect from them the same death grip, as well as on ice. By the way, neshipovanny winter tires of new generations on a slippery surface behave practically not worse, than shipovanny.
Some for the winter put shipovanny tires only on driving wheels. And on conducted leave... the summer. Do not do so, it is dangerous. On the slippery road the probability of demolition of neshipovanny pair of wheels is very great, even in rather harmless situations, – factors of coupling and resistance to lateral withdrawal too strongly differ.
Not шипуйте tires anywhere. It is process responsible, demanding the good equipment and experts. Warped, it is insufficiently or thorns unduly drowned in rubber increase wear of the tire. And, clearly, safety do not promote.
The main problem in the winter – start-up of the cold engine. More often it arises at carburetor motors, but in a hard frost with it can face and the owner of the car the injector engine. The reasons are known – the thickened oil, falling of capacity of the accumulator and bad evaporation of gasoline. We will consider oils and accumulators separately, for now – some words about experience of the countries with a frigid climate where prestarting electroheaters – such "kipyatilnichka" in system of cooling of the engine are widely applied. Approached on the house or to office, thrust a fork in the socket, turned on the timer... By the necessary time the engine will be heated-up, and some designs provide also salon warming up.
Electric devices of heating are presented some years and in the Russian market. The Finnish heaters which can be completed with timers use the greatest popularity. Cost together with installation – about $250. Approximately for $100 it is possible to get a heater of a domestic production (for VAZ models and "Volga"), but the timer for it is not provided.
The main lack of electroheating consists that at the house or office it is necessary to have a special guard with the socket. It is to Finns well, and at us the corresponding infrastructure if will appear, not soon and not everywhere. Other exit – an independent heater and works at liquid fuel which too is built in system of cooling of the engine by a principle of a water-heating copper. As fuel for it gasoline or diesel fuel, depending on at what the engine of your car works serves.
In the Russian market independent heaters of production Eberspacher, Webasto, and also a product of Shchadrinsky automodular plant (ShchAAZ) are presented.
To establish a heater it is possible at specialized stations which there is already a lot of and in Moscow, and as a whole across Russia. Warming up time – no more than 15 minutes, is thus spent only 200 g of gasoline or diesel fuel. Such heaters (besides the timer) can be completed with the device of remote control. Cost of an independent heater in the Russian market – about $1000.
The advantage of systems of heating consists also that at their application the engine resource increases. For the reference: each start-up of the cold motor at temperature-20 ° to C is equivalent to run in 800 km. By the way, according to modern views the motor will reach working temperature quicker, and its wear will be less if after start-up not to be at a stop, and to begin movement as soon as possible, avoiding, of course, excessive load of the engine.
Oil change usually make in a binding to car run, instead of to a season. But as change oil on the average time in half a year why not to make it on the threshold of winter?
The vast majority of modern engine oils – to some extent – all-weather. It is considered, it is necessary what to fill in that is offered the producer in the car maintenance instruction. But winters happen different – both slushy and warm, and yadreno-frosty. And it is absolutely not clear, whether the producer assumed that his car will be maintained in the conditions of the Russian winter, and that oil is required to it "more cold".
If you decided to deviate the instruction, at a choice of oil it is possible to use simple reception of determination of its temperature suitability – for secure. Let's call this reception by "rule 35".
Marking of engine oil should include designation of a class of its viscosity on SAE scale. For example: 15W-40. It means that this oil on viscosity at minus temperatures meets the requirements shown to winter oils of a class 15W, and at the plusovy – to summer oils of a class 40.
Remember number 35. If from it to subtract a "winter" index of a class of viscosity, in our example it is 15, the size called by limiting temperature of a prokachivayemost, i.e. temperature at which oil still keeps fluidity will turn out.
35-15=20. Means, oil 15W-40 can use at temperatures to-20 ° Page.
Respectively, than less "winter" index of a class of viscosity, subjects oil is colder". 10W – to-25 ° C; 5W – to-30 ° C.
It also is "rule 35". Simple and useful.
Struck a frost, and the accumulator which still yesterday was vigorously twisting a starter, refuses to do it flatly. Anything surprising – when you charged it the last time?
If the accumulator is youngish (till 3–4 years), on the threshold of winter it needs to be washed up outside, to clear plugs and completely to charge – if the car was constantly maintained in the city, the charge of the battery is for certain far from the nominal. If the accumulator old and to nominal capacity is not charged, change without thoughts, differently in the winter it for certain will bring you – capacity and so strongly falls with temperature fall, and here also the increased power consumption – a heater, heating of seats, light, yard keepers, a heater of back glass...
By the way, on responses of experts, average duration of "high-grade life" accumulator makes about twelve months, gradual withering further begins. And the peak of sales of starterny batteries, according to sellers, is necessary just for the autumn.
Times when the car owner was rushed off the feet in search of the new accumulator, passed long ago – from a variety of trademarks and models on regiments of shops рябит in eyes. What to choose – a personal record of everyone. Let's note only that in the market now it is possible to allocate two price groups – batteries in cost over $60 (usually to $100), for example, "Bosch", "Steco", "American", "Fiamm", and accumulators at the price of below $60 ("Mutlu", "Inci", "Centra", "SAEM" etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are defined by more perfect technology of their production. These accumulators, as a rule, belong to category of the unattended. Special types of electrolits and tight execution of such batteries increase a resource of their operation and provide the high starterny currents guaranteeing a provorachivayemost of the engine even at hard frosts. Leading producers without fail use now technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand periodic service – checks of density of electrolit and measurement of its level. Let's remind that the electrolit density for the winter period should be not lower 1,29.
Often upon purchase of the new battery try to choose it in capacity more if only got on the place taken away for it. But capacity – not the main thing. Where the starterny current which is provided by the battery is more important. After all even at the accumulator with big capacity this indicator (because of big own resistance) can appear lower, than at the accumulator with smaller capacity. Besides, the battery with bigger capacity needs higher current of the additional charge, which generator of your car will not provide, and the battery in use will be discharged more and more that is pitiable will affect term of its service.
By the way, if buy the battery which is differing from regular, pay attention to an arrangement of its conclusions – accumulators come across to "return polarity" which plugs of a wire of your car can and not reach.
If you have a new car of foreign production moreover with the injector engine, it is possible not to read further. But if the car second-hand, with the carburetor motor – then business another.
Actually, power supply systems and ignitions among themselves are not connected. But on modern engines with injection you will not meet neither the memorable mechanical distributor, nor breaker contacts. And on the carburetor – as much as necessary. And not to potter then on a frost, contacts should be cleaned, a distributor cover – too (and it is better to replace). Even better – to replace classical system of ignition on electronic (if still there were car owners who did not make it).
Do not forget about high-voltage wires. After driving few years on our "salty" roads they are desirable for changing, and it is better – on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to differences of temperatures. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often is at the bottom of lack of a spark is not formed. By the way, corrosion or a bad inhaling of storage plugs can be the banal reason of malfunctions of ignition.
Separately – about candles. Usually them change through 15–20 thousand kilometers, i.e. time in one and a half years (we do not take supermodern, maintaining 100 thousand km and more). It is not necessary to save on candles – to calcinate, clean and regulate gaps. Change at least once a year it it is inexpensive. Also put new on the threshold of winter. Fuel system
Quite often it is at the bottom of unsatisfactory operation of the engine during winter time. And all because of the water condensate which has accumulated in a fuel tank. If in a tank there is a drain stopper, water can be merged simply if is not present – to "neutralize", having applied so-called "vytesnitel of moisture". Practically all leading producers of auto chemical goods who are present in the Russian market (STP, Loctite, WynnХs, Aspokem), offer similar preparations which are filled in in a fuel tank and gradually clear a power supply system.
To the superfluous will not deliver the new filter of thin purification of fuel, to clean the carburetor and if the motor has injection system – to be convinced of purity of injectors.
To owners of diesel foreign cars, especially if the car was maintained earlier in the country with soft climate, it is necessary to take care of equipment of fuel system by special devices of heating. Practice shows what to get the diesel motor at-20 ° With happens difficult as fuel loses fluidity (how "winter" diesel fuel which at us is on sale in the winter is – it is possible to guess only). One of effective measures – application warmed up топливоприводов and filters. Thus to start up the diesel motor it is possible even at-40 ° for S.Podogrev it is carried out by elements which eat from the regular accumulator.
The current consumed by them makes near 5А, inclusion of heaters for 5–10 minutes practically does not affect accumulator capacity.
Winter – not the best season for the car, especially at movement on the streets which have been plentifully salted. During this period the body in the maximum degree is exposed to corrosion, and its anticorrosive processing is very desirable. However, according to employees of some authorized service centers, for a number of new foreign cars, especially – with the zinced body, is quite enough factory processing. But if at you, say, new Skoda (not to mention domestic cars), experts recommend to carry out complete anticorrosive processing of the bottom, wheel arches and the hidden cavities of a body. Installation of podkrylok will be not out of place also.
Cost of a complex of these services on the average makes $250–300 and depends, generally from a type of applied protective preparations. Them in our market it is now presented much. But first of all it is necessary to pay attention, probably, on what are applied in the countries with the climate similar to ours. It can be the Finnish Mercasol AL with aluminum additives, the Swedish Noxudol on the metallized basis, the Canadian Rust stop or Tektyl.
Anticorrosive processing demands strict observance of technology and though practically all producers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, after all it is more preferable to make processing in the specialized service center. It is necessary to find out in advance, on what technology it is made. In any case before sheeting drawing on the bottom and arches the car should be cleared of dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
As you do processing by an anticorrosive mixture for some years, it is better поприсутствовать near the car and personally to observe this process.
Winter – hard test and for a paint and varnish covering of a body. Sharp differences of temperatures, snow mixed up with salt, an ice crust – all this leads to emergence of microcracks on paint. The surface of a body can be protected the special structure suitable for use at low temperatures, for example, by Plus Teflon or Color Magic. Processing by these preparations carry out approximately once a month – after obligatory washing of the car and its drying.
Question of where to hold the car in the winter, actually usually it is not necessary – who has a garage, keep it in garage, at whom is not present – on the street. Strangely enough, from the point of view of safety of a body (from corrosion, not from theft), between trips and for the night it is better to leave the car on the street – at a cold body process of corrosion goes more slowly. In cold garage of heat allocated by the car suffices on that it a few to warm, and the melted snow with salt some time actively do the dirty work. Well, and in warm garage even if you carefully washed the car from salt from below, it will stand all night long the wet...