- 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1. Dashboard
1.2. Car opening
1.3. Rear-view mirrors
1.4. Ignition / starter switch
1.5. Manual transmission
1.6. Automatic transmission
1.7. Engine start
1.8. Release of the hand brake
1.9. Car parking
1.10. Multipurpose display
1.11. Electronic central air of air
1.12. Safety locks
1.14. Lubricants and liquids
1.15. Impellent compartment
- 1.16. Good advice
- 1.16.1. Car purchase
18.104.22.168. Changed numbers
22.214.171.124. Purchase of the old car, or mysterious set of figures and letters
1.16.2. Preparation of the car for winter
+ 1.16.3. Councils for owners of the diesel car
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Repair of engines
+ 4. Heating system and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel, exhaust systems
+ 6. System of start of the engine
+ 7. Ignition system
+ 8. Coupling
+ 9. Transmissions
+ 10. Main transfer, semi-axes
+ 11. Brake system
+ 12. Suspension bracket and steering
+ 13. Body
+ 14. Body electric equipment
First of all, attentively study registration documents: how many was owners, whether registration and identification numbers of the car coincide with numbers in documents? According to the passport of the car be convinced that checkups were carried out and it is noted by the corresponding guarantee seals. Check authenticity of the plate with identification number (the bent ends of the plate and new and pure rivets – the signal of that not everything is all right, and is better to refuse further survey). If everything is all right, safely move further and start external survey.
Examine the car at natural lighting, instead of in garage or motor show so you can notice many distinctions of color shades.
The main issue – whether there was a car in failure? If it costs on all четырх wheels, there are no badly adjusted panels, distinctions in shades of paint and shpaklevka traces, longerons not погнуты, centering of a bumper and headlights is not broken, there are no traces of old registration plate, means, the car avoided failure, and repair was not made earlier.
If you unbend a sealant of windows and compare color under them to color of the car, you learn, whether the car was recoloured. Pay also attention to painting traces under arches, doors, suspension bracket details.
Coloring of electroconducting and hoses in an impellent compartment under color of a body – a sign of negligent repair.
About that looked after car, to you liquids and the pure engine oil, filled on level will tell.
Such insignificant details as worn-out protectors or pognuty disks, will enough cost much at replacement.
Easily give out itself the given seats in salon, worn-out rugs and an upholstery, scratches, knock and unclear smells, rust and dampness existence in a luggage carrier. They be signs of long life, and to get rid of them quite expensively.
Do not forget to check work of the central blocking, fog lights, electrowindow regulators. Expensive repair of trifles to you to anything.
Having shaken wheels in the vertical plane and having considered wear drawing on each tire, you will check wear of a basic part of wheels and a lot of things learn about a condition of a suspension bracket and steering system.
Rock the car from each corner. So you will check serviceability of shock-absorbers and stability of position of the car on all four wheels, especially, if it is the versatile person or the car equipped with the towing device.
After external survey start check of the main mechanisms.
At the cold engine check an automatic air zaslonka and engine start with fuel injection. Any engine including diesel, should not rustle, should pass to a quiet course quickly.
At the warmed-up engine, moving on small speed by high transfer, check wear of a cranked shaft and bearings. Gromykhaniya should not be. Check wear of a surface of cylinders and valves, operating with a butterfly valve. If there was a dark blue smoke – serious repair of the engine, a black smoke – a sign of a deterioration of nozzles and problems with a fuel mix is required.
The temperature sensor should work reliably at any change of conditions (for example, in operating time idling). Do not forget to be convinced that the electrofan is disconnected in time.
After a warming up the engine should work silently and smoothly, even a diesel engine. Easy postukivaniye indicate wear of a drive of valves or a camshaft. With hot, idling, the engine uncover mouths and check on a dymleniye and a deposit. Check also existence of leaks. The alarm bulb of pressure of oil usually should not burn. If it not so, it points to wear of the krivoshipno-shatunny mechanism or маслонасоса.
First of all, check coupling. Try to get under way on high transfer at rigidly put hand brake. The engine should decay at once. Then check coupling capture. If it occurs at the very end of a pedal course, it speaks about wear of coupling.
Change of transfer should be sure, work of a transmission should be silent.
Automatic equipment should work smoothly and very precisely: if the transmission does not want to be switched smoothly up, its wear or bad adjustment is probable. Check, whether the switch with normal correctly works for a sports mode. Transmissions at movement should work at all-wheel drive cars especially smoothly though on some models it is necessary to expect some "sagging". Check oil level in AKPP. If it low or a box absolutely dry, we advise to you to stop further survey of this car. Repair of automatic transmissions is labor-consuming and expensive.
It is necessary to pass not less than 30 km on different roads to reveal all shortcomings of the car.
Be careful: if the car wags or leaves aside, at the best is the wrong disorder convergence, in the worst – погнуты suspension bracket or steering details.
Checking existence люфта, shake a wheel in the parties. In the presence of the power steering do not forget to be convinced that it is reliable at different speeds and loadings. By cars with a forward drive turn out a wheel on the maximum corner to check degree of wear of spherical support of equal angular speeds that is determined by a klatsayushchy sound.
The roar or swimming indicate wear of shock-absorbers and springs. Check electronic adjustment of shock-absorbers on different modes.
Attentively check brakes at different efforts. If the car leaves aside, it can be a zalipayushchy support. Wear of disks is indicated by a pedal going by pushes. Check also anti-blocking system of brakes (at movement the alarm bulb should not light up, and at start – on the contrary).
Having checked thus the darling, well think, whether there correspond your impressions to the specified run and, having weighed all pros and cons, decide. The qualified realized choice – a guarantee of that the car becomes your assistant and the friend.
Some more councils
Once in all guides to purchase of cars it was specified that wear of rubber of a pedal is a good indicator of size of run. Today this defect is too well-known to trust, after all rubber of pedals is easy for changing.
The upholstery in modern cars is much more durable, than established ten years ago, but all the same the place of the driver wears out first of all. Examine external edge (it rubs when the driver enters and leaves the car) – the age of the car is determined by it.
Check work and a condition of all lamps and other electric devices. The burst rasseivatel of headlights are especially important – some of them can cost very expensively.
The condition of a tire is a good indicator of run – the declared 40 000 km at unpaired tires cause strong suspicion! It is possible to consider also replacement cost, especially in case of low-profile and other special tires.
From a place of the driver check operation of devices and governing bodies – dangling handles, as well as a smooth surface of a rim of a steering wheel, point to big run.