since 1993-1999 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Repair of engines
+ 4. Heating system and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel, exhaust systems
+ 6. System of start of the engine
+ 7. Ignition system
+ 8. Coupling
+ 9. Transmissions
+ 10. Main transfer, semi-axes
+ 11. Brake system
+ 12. Suspension bracket and steering
+ 13. Body
- 14. Body electric equipment
14.1. Technical characteristics
14.2. Search of a source of malfunction in electric equipment system
14.3. Safety locks and relay
14.5. Bulbs (external lighting devices)
14.6. Bulbs (internal lighting)
14.7. External lighting devices
14.8. Adjustment of headlights of head light
14.9. Instrument guard
14.10. Elements of an instrument guard
14.11. Hours / multipurpose display
14.13. System of adjustment of xenon headlights
14.14. Horns of a sound signal
14.15. Levers of screen wipers
14.16. Engine, connecting mechanism of a screen wiper of a windscreen
14.17. Engine of a screen wiper of back glass
14.18. Washers of wind glass / back glasses / headlights of head light
14.19. Radio receiver / cassette / CD player
14.21. Radio antenna
14.22. System of the anticreeping alarm system and engine immobilizer
14.23. System of airbags of safety
14.24. Elements of system of airbags of safety
14.25. System elements cruise control
+ 14.26. Electric equipment schemes
The typical electric chain consists of an element of electric equipment, switches, the relay, engines, the safety locks, burned-through crossing points or automatic switches and wires and connections which connect all elements among themselves and connect them to the accumulator and mass of the car.
Before the beginning of check of a faulty chain study the schematic diagram of this chain to understand, it consists of what elements. The source of malfunction can be found quicker if to define, what of elements of this chain work normally. If some elements or chains fail at once, the problem, possibly, consists in the fused safety lock or bad grounding as often one safety lock is responsible for some chains.
Problems with work of system of electric equipment are usually caused by the simple reasons, such as the oxidized or unreliable contacts, the fused safety lock, the fused burned-through crossing point or the faulty relay (the description of operation of check of the relay is given in subsection 14.3). Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires and connections in a faulty chain before the beginning of check of other elements of this chain.
If you are going to use instrumentations, use schematic diagrams to define, what connections are necessary for checking for failure detection.
The main devices necessary for search of malfunction in a chain of electric equipment, are:
– the device for verification of schemes or the voltmeter (or a bulb on 12 Volts with connecting wires);
– a control bulb with the power supply (or the device for check of integrity of chains);
– an ohmmeter (for resistance measurement);
– щупы with wires;
– a cap wire, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which can be used for check of wires or electric equipment elements.
Before the beginning of search of malfunction with use of the control and measuring equipment study schematic diagrams to define connection points.
For search of unreliable connection or a point of short circuit (usually because of the bad or polluted connection or the damaged isolation) it is possible to shake wires by a hand to see, whether there is a chain out of operation at wire movement. Such way it is possible to find a point with unreliable connection or a point in which there is a short circuit. This method of check can be used along with other tests described below.
Besides the problems connected with bad connection, the electric chain can have two other main malfunctions – gap existence in a chain or short circuit.
The gap in a chain can be caused by a rupture of any wire or absence of connection somewhere in a chain that will prevent a current current. The gap in a chain will cause refusal of any element of electric equipment in work, but will not lead to a peregoraniye of a safety lock of this chain.
The malfunctions connected with short circuit, are caused by short circuit somewhere in a chain that leads to that the current flowing on a chains, begins a leak on other chain and, more often, leaves on weight. Short circuit is usually caused by a rupture of isolation that allows a feeding wire to concern either other wire, or the earthed element, such, as a body. Short circuit leads to a peregoraniye of a safety lock of the corresponding chain.
Before search of a source of malfunction or at carrying out repair in system of electric equipment do not forget that various types of wires have various color.
Search of a rupture of a chain
Search of short circuit
Loading is elements of electric equipment which consume the electric power, such, as bulbs, engines, heating elements etc.
Check of reliability of grounding
The negative plug of the accumulator is connected to mass of the car – to metal of an engine / transmission and a car body – and the majority of systems of electric equipment are developed so that only one feeding wire approached to an element of electric equipment, and the current came back through metal of a body of the car. It means that fastening of an element of electric equipment and a body of the car are a part of an electric chain. Therefore the bad or oxidized fastening can be at the bottom of a large number of malfunctions in electric equipment system, from a full exit of a chain out of operation before its unreliable work. In particular, bulbs can dimly burn (especially if other chain using the same grounding) is included, engines (for example, engines of screen wipers or the fan of cooling of a radiator) can slowly work, and inclusion of any chain can influence work of other chain. Notice that on many cars connecting earthing strips between various units of the car are used, for example, between an engine / transmission and a body, usually when between elements there is no metal contact because of use of rubber fastenings etc.